Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Saner Bash Commands Inside Python

As great as Python is, sometimes the dev's make really weird decisions regarding defaults. A perfect example is running shell commands inside Python 3+. For some reason the dev thought it was a good idea to make the subprocess "run" method _not_ capture the output from stdout or stderr by default. I find this incredibly annoying and it constantly result in me having to look up the syntax since I always forget it.

I decided to instead have this little helper function to encapsulate what I consider to be saner defaults. I decode the bytes into utf8 since thats the output for 99% of all bash commands.

#!/usr/bin/env python3
import subprocess

def run_cmd(cmd):
    result = subprocess.run(cmd, shell=True, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
    result.stdout = result.stdout.decode('utf8')
    result.stderr = result.stderr.decode('utf8')
    return result

Running that function will execute whatever command you pass it (insecure, but use it appropriately) and returns an object that you can then check the return code, stdout, and stderr.

So now, it's just:

In [25]: if 'root' in run_cmd('whoami').stdout:
   ....:             print("you are root")
you are root

Thursday, August 30, 2018

Download All Corporate Git Repos

Depending on the client you are testing, they may have an internal development team that checks code into a git repo. The vast majority of the clients I've seen implement the Atlassian suite of tools, typically containing an internally hosted Bitbucket.

The Bitbucket web interface has a search feature for looking for code snippets. It's absolutely awful. It's like an off brand tonka toys reject of a search function. You know what's way better? grep. That means I'd have to download every repo to search it locally. I did that with this script:

It's handy to note that grepping isn't the only good thing about cloning repos locally. It allows you to run the myriad of vuln checker tools, load up the code into an IDE and run source/sink analysis on it, and much more.

Wednesday, August 29, 2018

Brute Force LDAP Names (or how I kinda downloaded LDAP)

Running queries over a network using the ldapsearch tool can be a bit annoying. It's especially annoying when you constantly run into the "size limit exceeded" result when you get large responses.

I decided to write a little tool to recursively and conditionally search LDAP for CN entries (basically AD account names) and download them locally. If it detects the error size limit error, it automatically adds a new character to drill even further.

It works fantastically well. After you run this tool you should have many .out files containing ldap query responses. Grep to your hearts content:

Thursday, August 23, 2018

Apache Struts 2 Vulnerability & Exploit (CVE-2018-11776)

Yesterday a new vulnerability in certain versions of Apache Struts (2.3 - 2.3.34, 2.5 - 2.5.16)was discovered that leads to RCE. It requires both vulnerable versions as well as vulnerable configurations.

The gist of the issue is that if you have a vulnerable configuration that doesn't lend a namespace to struts, struts will take the user-specified namespace instead. Fortunately, it takes the namespace and evaluates it as a OGNL expression, allowing you to fairly easily get remote code execution.

Working PoC (I personally tested it myself and it works)

Technical deep dive on finding the vulnerability:

Vuln writeup by Semmle (including conditions for vulnerable configurations)

Apache's security bulletin for the vuln:

Mitre CVE link:

A couple caveats I found while testing:
  • It definitely requires a lack of namespace attribute in the classes xml
  • All that is required for successful exploitation is a single proper GET request
  • Doesn't work on all struts-showcase installs (2.3.15 wasn't working for some reason), making me think it may be a bit finicky
I modified the PoC listed above into a simple python function, making everything simpler:

Below is it being run against a vulnerable VM I set up

Wednesday, August 15, 2018

Twitter Controlled Anything - Micropython on ESP32

I recently purchased an ESP32 from amazon for testing purposes and a colleague mentioned you could install a minimalist python environment on them for control. To say the least, I was intrigued.

I wanted to be able to control a light (or anything really) using tweets. Below are the instructions/scripts I wrote to get it working. First comes the prerequisites:
  • ESP32 (duh)
  • A VPS, Pi, or really any computer acting as a flask server (it just needs internet access)
  • A wifi network for the ESP32 to connect to, I just used the hotspot on my phone as a PoC
  • Twitter API credentials (really easy to get, just fill out the forms)
Your ESP32 will query your flask server for a trigger word to enable the LED. The Flask server will query twitter for your latest top tweet, if it has a trigger word in it, relay that to the esp32 client. Boom, tweet causes LED to turn on.

The first step is to get your ESP32 setup running the micropython environment. I followed this excellent guide

Once you get your ESP32 configured to run python code, go ahead and transfer the following script to act as the client. You just need to change the wifi details and target flask server:

import machine
import urequests
import time

pin = machine.Pin(2, machine.Pin.OUT)

def connect():
    import network
    sta_if = network.WLAN(network.STA_IF)
    if not sta_if.isconnected():
        print('connecting to network...')
        while not sta_if.isconnected():
    print('network config:', sta_if.ifconfig())

def no_debug():
    import esp
    # this can be run from the REPL as well


while True:
    if 'yes' in urequests.get('http://MYFLASKDOMAINHERE.com:5000').text:

Connect the LED to Pin 2 on the ESP32 and it's all set to go. Now onto the flask server...

On your VPS/Pi/whatever, install flask and tweepy and create a directory to hold your script files. Grab the Access Token, Access Secret, Consumer Secret, Consumer Key from your Twitter Dev console that you set up earlier and place them in a "twitter_creds.py" file like the following:

ACCESS_TOKEN = '18077065-lakjsdflkajshdlfkajshdflkajsdhqqSYOtHSXtK1'
ACCESS_SECRET = 'hPqlkwjehrlkfjnlqwejhqrwklejrqhlwkejrJr1'
CONSUMER_KEY = 'QZlk9qlkwejrhqlkwjerhlqwlLh'
CONSUMER_SECRET = 'uEnkzjxcnvluqblwjbefkqwlekjflkqjwehflqlkjhuOE'

Then paste the following into "tweepy-top.py"

from twitter_creds import *

import tweepy

auth = tweepy.OAuthHandler(CONSUMER_KEY, CONSUMER_SECRET)
auth.set_access_token(ACCESS_TOKEN, ACCESS_SECRET)

api = tweepy.API(auth)

def get_top_tweet():
    top_tweet = api.user_timeline(count=1)
    return top_tweet[0].text

Now create your main flask app by pasting the following into "flaskhello.py":

from flask import Flask
from tweepy_top import get_top_tweet

app = Flask(__name__)

def hello():
    if 'light' in get_top_tweet():
        return 'yes'
        return 'no'

if __name__ == "__main__":
  app.run(host="", threaded=True)

There you can see 'light' is used as the trigger word. Using this setup, every 2 seconds the esp32 will make a request to your flask server, which causes the flask server to query twitter for the user's top tweet, if the top tweet contains the word "light" in it, it returns the string "yes". The ESP32 recognizes the "yes" and turns on pin 2.

This is a very simple PoC and gets the job done. You can take this and expand in a thousand directions with it, some ideas:

  • A desktop counter that keeps track of your followers, retweets, likes, etc
  • A LED scroller that outputs your latest mentions
  • Or simply use twitter as the control for some device
The options are endless...enjoy :D

Thursday, August 2, 2018

Top 100 Ingredients From HomeChef Recipes

I love cooking, I consider it my primary hobby outside of infosec/coding. I had HomeChef for several months and absolutely loved it, I looked forward to each selection every week and always got to try some new techniques/flavors/combinations I probably would never had tried on my own.

Every meal they sent us had a double-sided recipe page to guide you through the process. I noticed something at the bottom of the recipe page:

They have a handy link for each recipe posted on their website, probably so it's easy to share what you made with family/friends. The fact that I saw a number, along with a list of ingredients got my thinking...

If I were to stock my pantry/fridge with "basic" ingredients, what would it look like? How about I count up the occurrences of certain ingredients on each recipe page, that should give me a good idea.

Well after gathering the data over a couple of days (I kept everything slow so as to not cause any problems) I present to you, the top 100 ingredients according to recipes on HomeChef.com

Count Ingredient
609 Garlic Cloves
433 Butter
345 Boneless Skinless Chicken Breasts
320 Green Onions
315 Shallot
219 Lemon
210 Sour Cream
208 Lime
202 Red Onion
186 Grape Tomatoes
178 Red Bell Pepper
170 Parsley Sprigs
158 Yellow Onion
154 Mayonnaise
153 Red Pepper Flakes
152 Honey
149 Liquid Egg
148 Cremini Mushrooms
142 Russet Potatoes
142 Green Beans
138 Jasmine Rice
135 Cilantro Sprigs
134 Sugar
131 Chopped Ginger
125 Baby Arugula
122 Grated Parmesan Cheese
119 Carrot
117 Roma Tomato
114 White Cooking Wine
104 Baby Spinach
102 Grated Parmesan
101 Panko Breadcrumbs
100 Light Cream
100 Shredded Mozzarella
99 Slaw Mix
98 JalapeƱo Pepper
95 Cilantro
95 Shrimp
94 Thyme Sprigs
93 Zucchini
93 Garlic Clove
89 Parsley
88 Sriracha
87 Dijon Mustard
84 Sirloin Steaks
82 Cornstarch
76 Heavy Whipping Cream
76 Light Brown Sugar
75 Seasoned Rice Vinegar
74 Romaine Heart
73 Pork Tenderloin
72 Kale
72 Shredded Cheddar Cheese
72 Asparagus
71 Sweet Potato
71 Flour
69 Roasted Red Peppers
69 Spinach
69 Ground Beef
68 Salmon Fillets
68 Matchstick Carrots
68 Toasted Sesame Oil
62 Brussels Sprouts
62 Soy Sauce - Gluten-Free
61 Carrots
60 Mini Baguette
57 Small Flour Tortillas
57 Persian Cucumber
57 Basil Pesto
56 Green Onion
56 Ground Turkey
54 Teriyaki Glaze
54 Radishes
54 Red Fresno Chile
53 Beef Demi-Glace
52 Ear of Corn
51 Basil Sprigs
51 Roasted Chicken Breast
50 Roma Tomatoes
50 Blue Cheese
50 Canned Evaporated Whole Milk
49 Marinara Sauce
49 Extra Firm Tofu
48 Smoked Paprika
47 Balsamic Vinegar
47 Naan Flatbreads
47 Bacon Strips
47 Chicken Demi-Glace
46 Taco Seasoning
45 Avocado
45 Broccoli Florets
45 Frozen Peas
44 Chives
44 Corn Kernels
44 Plain Greek Yogurt
44 Tilapia Fillets
43 Navel Orange
43 Feta Cheese
43 Bone-in Pork Chops

What would a post be without some code? below is the embarrassing Python script (hey, it worked...) that parses the HTML:

XPATH Notes (how to grep xpath)

XPATH is a querying language for XML document trees. Lots of web scrapers use it since HTML can be represented as XML directly.

Your basic "grep" like XPATH query is something like the following:

  • //*[@itemprop="recipeIngredient"]

  • // = start at root of tree and include itself in any searches
  • * = any tag, anywhere in the document, otherwise replace with tag name
  • [blah] = evaluate the condition blah inside the brackets
  • @itemprop = This is how you reference attributes instead of tags
  • [@itemprop] = the condition is: if the itemprop attribute exists in some tag
  • [@itemprop="recipeingredient"] = condition is: if itemprop attribute's value is "recipeingredient"
Another example is if I wanted to search anything that references example.com in an XML document, I'd search for any href attribute that contains "example.com" like so:
  • //*[@href='example.com']
Or limit it just to direct hyperlinks like "a" tags
  • //a[@href='example.com]
XPATH has a lot more functionality than this but this is mostly what I need it for.

The expression in the condition brackets "[blah]" can be used with certain functions: https://www.w3schools.com/xml/xpath_syntax.asp

Wednesday, August 1, 2018

Finding Interesting Files Using Statistical Analysis

I noticed a pattern when scrounging for target data on pentests. Most of the times in which I get valuable data (test creds/log data/unencrypted logs/etc) they are often in files that are in some way different than those around them. Sometimes its their filename, like when you have 400 files named "NightlyLogDATE" and you see a "NightlyLogDATE.bak". It also tends to happen with file sizes. You'll have the same directory and almost every file is around 400-600KB and a couple will be megabytes big or only a couple KB.

These files are "interesting" to me because they differ in some way. These are the outliers. Sometimes they will be temporary backup files where a tech needed to test credit card processing with encryption turned off, or maybe some error pumped traceback/debug output to an otherwise normal file.

I decided to scrounge around online to stitch together a script that will report these outlier files.

The following script will look in the target directory, calculate the median absolute deviation, compare it against a threshold and return the filenames for you to prioritize pillaging.

It's fairly basic so I'm happy to accept any code donations :D

Friday, July 27, 2018

A Review Of Alex Ionescu's Windows Internals For Reverse Engineers

This year (2018) at Recon in Montreal I signed up to take a class from Alex Ionescu called "Windows Internals for Reverse Engineers", the following are my thoughts on the course and experience.

I decided to take this class after being completely demolished at Infiltrate's "Click Here for Ring Zero" course. That course, despite all its faults, told me I wasn't as strong in Windows Internals as I thought I was. I figured, taking the Windows Internals course from one of the guys that literally writes the book would be a good step. Boy, was I right.

I've taken a lot of training and had lots of bad teachers in the past. Some of those teachers were monotone, non-engaged, unable to map new information to existing concepts, unprepared course material, broken labs, etc. Alex and his course was none of these things. I'm going to break down my evaluation of the teacher and course separately since those are the two main components in all training. I'm going to end with any prerequisites, and final thoughts/recommendations.

Teacher - Alex Ionescu
After going through the training (and talking to several other people in the class) I can confidently say that Alex is at the top (or top 2) of my list in effective communication and teaching. Alex has struck a rare combination of technical mastery over a subject (Windows Internals) as well as the ability to map new information to other people's current understanding.

He exhibited many good teacher practices, below are some of the ones that stood out to me:
  • He would give context for the target material by explaining "neighbor" material that was related. Making it easier to understand technical context and draw logical conclusions.
  • He explained the history behind certain design choices in Windows to help eliminate the "Why the hell would they do it that way?" feeling.
  • Extremely well prepared with the hand out material. 
  • Extremely well prepared with presentation material. He had annotation software allowing him to draw data structures and quickly highlight information pertinent to his point. He also had a countdown timer for breaks/lunch so no one ever asked how much time we had left. He always showed up a minute or two before it expired and started on time.
  • Was engaging with humor (poked fun at Microsoft devs several times) and not monotone at all.
  • Almost never read from the slides, all the information was well understood and presented fluidly.
Course - Windows Internals for Reverse Engineers
The course and its materials were inextricably linked with the teacher so its difficult to speak to it in an independent fashion but here goes nothing.

Make no mistake, this course is not for beginners. It is a full blown firehose of information and topics for 4 days straight. He's pretty relentless and if it wasn't for the fact that he's a fantastic teacher, you'd be easily lost on day one. The course material is extremely technical, in depth, and just a whole lot of it too.

Some things you'll learn about:
  • Setting up local and remote kernel debug machines
  • Windbg syntax, functions, and capabilities
  • OS design/decisions for memory and execution models, address space layout, shared data fields (KUSER_SHARED_DATA), functions and capabilities of the hypervisor
  • Secure UEFI boot signing, hypervisor based code integrity, PatchGuard, HyperGuard, memory segmentation
  • Software guard extensions on new CPUs, kernel/etc interrupts, system calls w/wo hypervisor enabled, win32k.sys
  • Windows object manager, the object directory, kernel handle table, sandboxing
That's maybe 10% of the course right there. I just flipped through the handout and wrote down the slide titles and topics I could remember.

For a higher level explanation of the topics you'll cover, Recon's training site was fairly accurate, granted it doesn't give you a sense of the depth. It's deep, yo.

On the course signup page he mentions the following in "Class Requirements":
IMPORTANT: It’s helpful to understand x86/x64/ARM assembly to take this course, but knowledge of obfuscation, packing, etc., is not required.
Basic knowledge of Windows, processor architecture, and operating systems is helpful – you should have some vague idea of what an interrupt is, and what is the difference between user and kernel mode (ring levels), a bit about virtual memory/paging, etc.
I would add a couple more to that list:
  • Familiarity with C++ notation/syntax (he uses it a lot in windbg)
  • An understanding of certain programming concepts such as common data structures, type casting, overloading, modules, macros, memory paging, kinds of linked lists, etc.
I personally recommend you give the latest Windows Internals book a read through before coming to this class. It will help tremendously in not being lost.

Areas of Improvement
I'm really reaching here since honestly if nothing changed about this course, it would still be towards the top of my list. I'd say the only thing I wish could change would be more hands on labs and perhaps some reference material in the back of the handout, things like common WinDBG commands, the C++ notation he uses, and other commonly referenced information. I'd also recommend maybe cutting out some pieces he feels aren't as necessary to distill the content a bit more. But like I said, I'm reaching pretty hard here. If you are ready for the course, take it. I extremely recommend it.

If you feel you are the point in your career where you need a better understanding of Windows Internals to be more effective, and you meet the prerequisites, I strongly recommend this course. While its marketed towards reverse engineers (which I am not) it does help the more senior pentester/red teamer who is looking to branch out into custom Windows malware.

If I could go back in time to my previous self trying to make the decision on whether or not to take this course, I'd tell him to definitely take it. But I'd also tell him to read more of the Windows Internals book before he started class :D

People pronounce windbg in many ways, "win-dee-bee-jee", "win-debug", etc. He pronounces it "wind-bag" which I find too weird for my tastes. I believe I've discovered the true sentiment and feeling of the tool by pronouncing it my own way: "win-deebag".

Wednesday, July 25, 2018

Setting Up A Kali Interception VM

Twice now I've had to setup an interception proxy for testing protocol implementations. Below are the steps I took to configure the Kali VM as my main MITM box. I decided to not use a MITM attack like ARP Spoofing but instead setup Kali as a middling router. The networking setup is rather simple:
TargetDevice (over USB Ethernet adapter)-> Kali VM (Bridged Mode) -> Laptop's Wifi

  1. Download/install Kali as a virtual machine
  2. Set the VM in bridged mode (VMware breaks some things)
  3. Follow the guide here to get Internet sharing configured on Kali: http://itfanatic.com/?q=node/84
  4. Create an iptables rule to redirect your target traffic to your proxy software. Here i'm redirecting all traffic over 443 to 2020 (where striptls is listening): iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 443 -j REDIRECT --to-port 2020
  5. Download striptls from github
  6. Run it locally with something like: ./striptls.py -s --listen --remote exampletarget.com:443
Running striptls is obviously not mandatory since step 3 configured a working middle machine. I just used it in my testing to strip the TLS command from XMPP and HTTPS. You now have a machine all traffic is flowing through and is at your disposal to do with as you wish.